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In conclusion, Gal-3 is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, adiposity and inflammation. These findings are in line with the absence of major neurochemical alterations in hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex or striatum, which are involved in the expression of these behaviours. Hetkel müügis 30 raamatut.

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Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J We recently found that female aromatase knockout ArKO mice that are deficient in oestradiol due to a targeted mutation in the aromatase gene show deficits in sexual behaviour that cannot be corrected by adult treatment with oestrogens.

We determined here whether these impairments are associated with changes in general levels of activity, anxiety a5 fat burner arvustused 'depressive-like' symptomatology due to chronic oestrogen deficiency.

We also compared the neurochemical profile of ArKO and wild-type WT females, as oestrogens have been shown to modulate dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic brain activities.

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  • Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J We recently found that female aromatase knockout ArKO mice that are deficient in oestradiol due to a targeted mutation in the aromatase gene show deficits in sexual behaviour that cannot be corrected by adult treatment with oestrogens.
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ArKO females did not differ from WT in spontaneous motor activity, exploration or anxiety. These findings are in line with the absence of major neurochemical alterations in hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex or striatum, which are involved in the expression of these behaviours.

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By contrast, ArKO females displayed decreased active behaviours, such as struggling and swimming, and increased passive behaviours, such as floating, in repeated sessions of the forced a5 fat burner arvustused test, indicating that these females exhibit 'depressive-like' symptoms.

Adult treatment with oestradiol did not reverse the behavioural deficits observed in the forced swim test, suggesting that they may be due to the absence of oestradiol during development.

Accordingly, an increased serotonergic activity was observed in the hippocampus of ArKO females compared with WT, which was also not reversed by adult oestradiol treatment. The possible organizational role of oestradiol on the hippocampal serotonergic system and the 'depressive-like' profile of ArKO females provide new insights into the pathophysiology of depression and the increased vulnerability of women to depression. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden Jingbo Pang Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 Gal-3, a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts.

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Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production of acute-phase proteins, number of circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6C high monocytes and development of neutrophilia, microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis in week-old Lean and DIO male Gal-3 KO mice. This was associated with impaired fasting glucose, heightened response to a glucose tolerance test and reduced adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, Gal, ATGL and PPARγ, in the presence of maintained insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in week-old Gal-3 KO mice compared to their diet-matched WT controls.

Impaired fasting glucose and altered responsiveness to a glucose load preceded development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated in week-old Gal-3 KO mice.

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Finally, a role for the microflora in mediating the fasting hyperglycemia, but not the excessive response to a glucose load, of week-old Gal-3 KO mice was demonstrated by administration of antibiotics. In conclusion, Gal-3 is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, adiposity and inflammation.

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Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction.

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For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration. Here we used the Ndufs4 KO mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration.

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In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found.

We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria.